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when computers communicate with one another ,they have to use the same communication protocol. A protocol is basically a standard set of rules that governs how some task should be done by a computer:. Communication protocol governs how computers transmit data to one another. There is several different communications protocol in use today. AS a PC Internet user with a dial up account there are three that will be particularly important to you. Creativity and Inspiration Workshops at Artists Network TV
TCIP Winsock and SLIP/PPP. (1) TCP.IP is the major standard communications protocol used on the Internet. It stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internetworking Protocol," making TCP/IP two separate communication protocols working in conjunction. The TCP part is responsible for breaking data down into packets, as well as to reassembling them. The IP part handles how the data packets are transmitted over the network. by using TCP/IP, different operating systems can communicate with one another, because they all obey this protocol. Save up to 95% on international calls, get $5 OFF!
WINSOCK Internet applications for windows and windows 95 must comply with the Winsock standard. Winsock - short for "Windows Socket "- is an application programming interface(API). An API Is a shared subprogram that performs a basic function common to several applications. In Winsocks case it acts as a "conduit" between TCP/IP and application programs that use TCP/IP. Basically , an application tells Winsock what it wants to do ,then Winsock tells your computer's TCP/IP software to do it . Winsock comes with the TCP/IP software windows 95.Wire & Cable - We carry a large selection of bulk reels to completed cables in every style and length.
SLIP/PPP stands for "Serial Line Internet Protocol," while PPP stands for "Point-To-Point Protocol." unlike TCP/IP , SLIP and PPP are actually two separate distinct protocols that do not work in conjunction. Usually you would be using one or the other, not both simultaneously. They both perform similar task and are quite commonly used.True Image 2013 by Acronis backup solution. Get a reliable tool to protect your data from any disaster and recover it promptly!protect your data from any disaster
SLIP and PPP are hardware communications protocols that govern electronic data transfers over serial device like a modem. they are the two most commonly used protocol for a dial-up connection PPP is more recent and is generally considered technically superior protocol, since it offers added advantages such as data compression and error correction.Bring back your deleted photos, and other important files, with ParetoLogic Data Recovery.communications protocols
PACKET SWITCHING Data is transmitted over the internet using a method called packet switching . Whenever a computer wants to send data over the internet, it must first break the data down into individual pieces called packets. Each packet contains a portion of the original data, as well as a header. This header contains important information, such as the packet's destination and ID number, which tell the receiving computer in what order to reassemble the packets. The header also contains the time the packet was made and information to help verify that the original data was transmitted intact.Emergency CommunicationEmergency Communication
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DOMAIN NAMES. In 1983, domain names were introduced. Domain names provide a way of referencing a machine, just as IP addresses do. Domain names composed of different words separated by periods, an example of a domain name is .

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When you want to access a computer you can use its domain name instead of its IP address. While all computers on the Internet have IP address they do not all have domain names.

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I.P ADDRESS. Just as every building needs its own street address every computer needs its own IP address. Just as you need the right phone number in order to call someone . An IP address is composed of four numbers each separated by a period , each somewhere in the range from 0 to 255 Some examples of valid IP addresses are 203. 156.155.1 or When reading an IP address aloud it is customary to say "dot" in place of the period. So in our first example IP address we would say "Two zero three dot one fifty six dot one five five dot one. How To Attract

DYMANIC IP ADDRESSING, on the other hand, is usually used on computers that are only occasionally connected to the Internet Most often used on computers that have a dial-up connection . When a computer is using dynamic IP addressing, it first contacts a network server asking for permission to connect. The server,after verifying that the computer is allowed access assigns that computer an IP address. Then when the client disconnects from the network the server puts that IP address back into the address pool, ready to be used by the next computer that connects to the network.Make long distance phone calls through your computer. Save $$$.

There is usually a set number of IP address available within any given network. With fixed addressing, the IP address is entered manually into the computer and it retain this address until it is manually changed . With dynamic addressing the server decides what IP address a computer will have when it connects, which it only retains for the duration of the connection. Go global! Register country-specific domain names with nsWebAddress™ and expand your brand worldwide!Go global!

Packets are sent from the originator's computer to a packet switch, which is a speific sort of router. A packet switch examines the packet's header to determine where it is headed, then sends -or forwards-that packet to another packet switch . This packet switch also examines the packet's header and forward it to the next packet switch . Each packet switch continues to redirect the packet, propelling it across the Internet, until it reaches its destination. once there the receiving computer reassembles the packets back into the original data.Wire & Cable - From bulk reels of cable to completed cables of everystyle and length we have you covered completed cables of everystyle and length

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IP addresses are unique . For every IP address there is only one computer associated with it at any given time. Computers that are on the same internal network generally share the same first three numbers in there IP addresses . Your office might use "204 .156.125.* So your computer might be, while your co worker down the hall would be The network administrator is responsible in assigning a valid IP address to each computer.Autodesk® T-Splines® Plug-in for Rhino® helps you to create smooth, high-quality CAD models for industrial design and engineering.

Fixed and Dynamic IP Addressing. There are two basic ways of assigning IP addresses:fixed and dynamic assignment. AFIXED IP address is one that has been explicitly assigned to a specific machine. Fixed IP address are generally handled by a network administrator, who determines which IP address should go to which machine and then configures them accordingly. Build a great website in 3 easy steps with Yahoo! Web HostingYahoo! Web HostingBuild a great website

Domain names have a couple of advantages over IP addresses. The most obvious one is that most people find them much easier to remember than IP addresses. Also while a computer has only one IP address , it can have multiple domain names. While an IP address only refers to a single computer a domain name may refer to a related cluster of linked computers.

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Also, domain names tend to be more stable than IP addresses , which tend to get reassigned whenever a network is restructured. One of the most important advantage is that domain names give you some idea of what the nature , function and sometimes the geographical location of the machine in question. Each part of the domain name helps to identify the computer.

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Breaking Down Domain Names. Each part of a domain name that is separated by a period is called a sub-domain. A sub domain is an alphanumeric field ,meaning that it is a string of text composed of letters, numbers ,and /or hyphens. Most domain names are composed of three sub domains. they may have as few as two sub domains , usually the most sub domain one will see is five.

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SUB DOMAINS. If you read each sub-domain in a domain name, you can gain some insight into that computer. The first sub domain on the right is the most general about the computer, while the sub-domain on the left is the most specific.- Shop and Receive FREE Ground Shipping on ALL iPhone 4 Cases!

TOP LEVEL DOMAINS. The first sub-domain on the right is known as the toplevel domain and it is the most broad characteristic of the computer. In the Usa top level domain names for computers usually use organizational domains , which indicate the sort of organization in which the computer is used. Below is a list of all the domain names and what they mean. Domain Meaning Edu Education institution Com Commercial organization Go Government Int International organization Mil Military Net Network organization Org Nonprofit organization Outside the USA, geographical domains are used instead, which specify the country where the computer is located, for instance, "JP" stands for Japan, "CA" for Canada etc. The standard two-letter international country codes are used. One exception is Great Britain which does not used "GB" instead "UK" is used.Doorway Page Maker - Increase your traffic 4 FOLD with this Traffic Page Builder Wizard.

Other Sub-Domain Conventions. The sub-domain to the left of the top-level domain usually indicates the name of the organization in question. A university "edu" site would usually use its name such as "York" or "Toronto". The sub-domain on the left is usually either the machines name or a description of its function. A mail server could be called "mail" a news server might be called "news". Some times fourth sub-domain can be included between the machine's name and the organization's name to label individual departments. Resulting in a domain name like lacy. cs.
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DOMAIN NAME SERVICE. When a computer tries to access another computer using a domain name, it contacts a Domain Name Service (DNS) server to find out the target computer's IP address. Without access to a DNS server, your computer cannot use domain names, because it would not be able to translate them into their corresponding IP address. Domain Names need to be registered officially before they will be added to DNS servers. Shared Domain Names. A single domain name might refer to more than one computer. Why would some one want to do this? Some times an organization will have multiple servers working in tandem, distributing the workload among these machines. Rather than having a separate domain name for each of these servers, the organization instead assigns a single domain name to the group of servers. When a user tries to connect using that domain name, that user will be connected to one of the computers in that group-usually the one least busy. That increases the organization's server performance By having them work together. At the same time not forcing users to use a different domain name for each server. HostRocket.Com - Web HostingHostRocket.Com

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MULTIPLE DOMAIN NAMES. A single machine can have multiple domain names associated with it. One reason is that some times people choose to register multiple domain names for a single server with the intent of expanding there network and adding more servers, which will take some of those domain names. For instance, suppose your company starts with a single server to handle all your Internet needs, you register several domain names for that server, one for each major function it performs:,, and, etc. Later when you buy more servers you can reassign those domain names to these new servers. The upgrade can take place without inconveniencing users. In fact users will not realize the servers had been added.
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Virtual Domain Names Most companies like to register their own domain names. Having their own domain names make it that much easier to find them on the Internet. But most small business cannot afford to set up and maintain their own dedicated machine on the Internet which can cost thousand of dollars per month. So their domain name instead of pointing to their own server points to one of the servers of their Internet service provider, who maintains a space for that company on their machines. This way a company can have its own domain personalized domain name without the high expense of maintaining a dedicated server Getting On The Internet.WEB HOSTING FREE FOR 12 MONTHS

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